Ionic liquids (ILs), low temperature molten salts composed exclusively by ions (generally, by an asymmetric imidazolium, ammonium, phosphonium or sulfonium cation associated to a polyatomic anion) have attracted in the last ten years the interest of a growing number of researchers and scientists for their potential in both experimental and theoretical sciences. Surely, the fact that they are composed of ions alone and are still liquid at ambient conditions has been reason enough to evoke the initial interest among researchers. But, the option of fine-tuning the physico-chemical properties by an appropriate choice of cation and anion is the fact that has stimulated much of the current activity on these compounds, which are consequently defined as "designer solvents".

Really, ILs represent a unique solvation environment for organic and inorganic reactions and catalyzed processes; their structural features can affect reactivity and selectivity, can control formation of polymeric materials, shape and dimension of nanoparticles, form of crystalline compounds.

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